Audi A4, S4
since 2000 of release
Repair and car operation
Audi A4, S4
+ Governing bodies and receptions of safe operation
+ Current leaving and service
+ Systems of cooling, heating and air conditioner
+ Power supply systems, release and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases
+ Systems of electric equipment of the engine
+ Manual box of gear shifting
+ Automatic transmission
+ Coupling, power shafts and differential
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
- Onboard electric equipment
Diagnostics of malfunctions of onboard electric equipment - the general information
Rassoyedineniye of sockets
Check of the electric motor of a screen wiper
Check of warmed back glass
Check of stoplights
Removal and installation of a sound signal
Removal and installation of sensors of a parking
Replacement of the battery of a remote control of the ignition key
Relay and safety locks
Replacement of filament lamps of devices of external lighting
Removal and installation of headlights
Removal and installation of the lateral repeater of turns
Removal and installation of an additional stoplight
Removal and installation of a back lamp
Removal and installation of a lamp of illumination of registration plate
Removal and installation of plafonds of internal lighting
Removal and installation of a control panel
Removal and installation of the podrulevy switch
Removal and installation of switches of a forward door
Removal and installation of the switch of light
Removal and installation of the switch of a window regulator in a back door
Removal and installation of the switch of a trunk lid
Removal and installation of the switch of the parking brake
Removal and installation of the switch of illumination of a ware box
Removal and installation of switches of the central console
Removal and radio receiver installation / navigation device/CD-чейнджера
Removal and installation of loudspeakers
Removal and installation of aerials
Removal and installation of the tank of liquid стеклоомывателя / pump electric motor
Removal and installation of the electric motor of a cleaner of a windscreen
Removal and electric motor installation on back glass (Versatile person)
The uniform lock - the general information
Removal and installation of a locking element of a cover of a fuel tank
Digital tire of data of CAN
+ Schematic diagrams of electric equipment
Digital tire of data of CAN
On the car some network tires of data exchange of CAN (Controller Area Network) between blocks (modules) of management of various systems and controlers of actuation mechanisms of the car are applied.
Separate control units are incorporated with each other in the general network and can exchange data.
The tire is two-forked, i.e. any device connected to it can accept and transfer messages.
The signal from a sensitive element (sensor) arrives in the next control unit which processes it and transfers to the tire of data of CAN.
Any control unit connected to the tire of data of CAN, can read out this signal, calculate on its basis value of the managing director of influence and operate an executive servomechanism.
At usual cable connection of electric and electronic devices direct connection of each control unit with all sensors and executive elements from which he receives results of measurements or which operates is carried out.
Complication of a control system brings to excessive length or large number of cable lines.
In comparison with standard cable distributing the tire of data provides:
The tire of data of CAN consists of the strong wire executed in the form of twisted pair. All devices are connected to this line (control units by devices).
Data transmission is carried out with duplication on both wires, and logic levels of the tire of data have mirror display (that is if on one wire level of logic zero is transferred, on other wire level of logic unit, and on the contrary is transferred).
The two-wire scheme of transfer is used for two reasons: for identification of mistakes and as reliability basis.
If the peak of tension arises only on one wire (for example, owing to problems about EMS (electromagnetic compatibility)), blocks receivers can identify it as a mistake and to ignore this peak of tension.
If there will be a short circuit or break of one of two wires of the tire of data of CAN, thanks to the integrated hardware-software system of reliability there will be a switching in an operating mode according to the single-wire scheme. The damaged transferring line will not be used.
The order and format of messages transferred and accepted by users (subscribers) is defined in the data exchange protocol.
Essential distinctive sign of the tire of data of CAN in comparison with other tire systems which are based on a principle of user's addressing, is the addressing correlated with the message.
It means that on the tire of data of CAN its permanent address (identifier) marking the contents of this message (for example is appropriated to each message: temperature of cooling liquid). The protocol of the tire of data of CAN allows transfer to 2048 various messages, and addresses with 3 on 2048 are constantly fixed.
The volume of data in one message on the tire of data of CAN makes 8 bytes.
The block receiver processes only those messages (packages of data) which are kept in its list of data of CAN of messages accepted on the tire (acceptability control).
Packages of data can be transferred only if the tire of data of CAN is free (i.e. if after the last package of data the interval in 3 bits followed, and any of control units does not start to transfer the message).
Thus logic level of the tire of data should be retsessivny (logic «1»).
If some control units at the same time start to transfer messages, the priority principle according to which the message on the tire of data of CAN with the highest priority will be transferred to the first without loss of time or bits (arbitration of inquiries of access to the general tire of data) comes into force.
Each control unit forfeiting the right of arbitration, is automatically switched to reception and repeats attempt to send the message as soon as the tire of data of CAN will again be released.
Except packages of data there is also a package of request of a certain message on the tire of data of CAN.
In this case the control unit which can provide a required package of data, reacts to this inquiry.
Format of a package of data
In a usual mode of transfer packages of data have the following configurations of blocks (frames):
• Data Frame (a message frame) for transmission of messages on the tire of data of CAN (for example: temperature of cooling liquid).
• Remote Frame (an inquiry frame) for request of messages on the tire of data of CAN from other control unit.
• Error Frame (a mistake frame) all connected control units are notified that there was a mistake and the last message on the tire of data of CAN is void.
The protocol of the tire of data of CAN supports two various formats of frames of the message on the tire of data of CAN which differ only on length of the identifier:
Now the standard format is used.
The package of data for transmission of messages on the tire of data of CAN consists of seven consecutive fields:
• Start of Frame (starting bit): Marks the beginning of the message and synchronizes all modules.
• Arbitration Field (identifier and inquiry): This field consists of the identifier (address) in 11 bits and 1 control bit (Remote Transmission Request-Bit). This control bit marks a package as Data Frame (a message frame) or as Remote Frame (an inquiry frame) without bytes of data.
• Control Field (operating bits): The management field (6 bits) contains IDE bit (Identifier Extension Bit) for recognition of a standard and expanded format, reserve bit for the subsequent expansions and - in the last 4 bits - number of bytes of the data put in Data Field (data field).
• Data Field (this): The data field can contain from 0 to 8 bytes of data. The message on the tire of data of CAN in length of 0 bytes is used for synchronization of the distributed processes.
• CRC Field (a control field): The field CRC (Cyclic-Redundancy-Check Field) contains 16 bits and serves for control recognition of mistakes by transfer.
• ACK Field (reception confirmation): The field ACK (Acknowledgement Field) contains a signal of confirmation of reception of all blocks receivers which have received the message on the tire CAN without mistakes.
• End of Frame (frame end): Marks the end of a package of data.
• Intermission (interval): An interval between two packages of data. The interval should make not less than 3 bits. After that any control unit can transfer the following package of data.
• IDLE (rest mode): If any control unit does not transfer messages, the tire CAN remains in a rest mode before transfer of the following package of data.
For data processing possibility of their fast transfer should be in real time provided.
It assumes not only line existence with high physical speed of data transmission, but also demands also operative providing access to the general tire CAN if it is necessary for several control units to transfer messages at the same time.
For the purpose of differentiation of data of CAN of messages transferred on the tire on urgency degree, for separate messages various priorities are provided.
The corner of an advancing of ignition, for example, has the highest priority, values of pro-slipping - average, and temperature of external air - the lowest priority.
The priority with which the message is transferred on the tire CAN, is defined by the identifier (address) of the corresponding message.
The identifier corresponding to smaller binary number, has higher priority, and on the contrary.
The protocol of the tire of data of CAN is based on two logic conditions: Bits are or "retsessivny" (logic «1»), or "prepotent" (logic «0»). If the prepotent bit is transferred by at least one module, the retsessivny bits transferred by other modules, are rewritten.
If some control units at the same time begin data transmission, the conflict of access to the general tire of data is authorized by means of «bit-by-bit arbitration of inquiries of the general resource» by means of the corresponding identifiers.
By transfer of a field of the identifier the block transmitter after each bit checks, whether it possesses still the right of transfer, or already other control unit transfers on the tire of data of CAN the message with higher priority.
If the retsessivny bit transferred by the first block transmitter is rewritten by prepotent bit of other block transmitter, the first block transmitter loses the right of a broadcast (arbitration) and becomes the block receiver.
The first control unit (N I) loses arbitration from the 3rd bit.
The third control unit (N III) loses arbitration from the 7th bit.
The second control unit (N II) keeps right of access to the tire of data of CAN and can transfer the message.
Other control units will try to transfer the messages on the tire of data of CAN only after it will again be released. Thus the right of transfer will be provided again according to priority of the message on the tire of data of CAN.
Recognition of mistakes
Hindrances can lead to mistakes in data transmission. Such, arising by transfer, it is necessary to distinguish and eliminate mistakes. The protocol of the tire of data of CAN distinguishes two levels of recognition of mistakes:
Mechanisms at Data Frame level
On the basis of transferred on the tire of data of CAN of the message the block transmitter counts control bits which are transferred together with a package given in the field «CRC Field» (checksums). The block receiver anew calculates these control bits on the basis of accepted on the tire of data of CAN of the message and compares them to the control bits received together with this message.
This mechanism checks structure of the transferred block (frame), that is bit fields with the set fixed format and length of a frame are rechecked.
The mistakes distinguished by the Frame Check function are marked as an error of a format.
Mechanisms at level of bits
Each module by transfer of the message traces logic level of the tire of data of CAN and defines thus distinctions between the transferred and accepted bit. Thanks to it reliable recognition of local mistakes global and arising in the block transmitter on bits is provided.
In each package of data between the field "Start of Frame" and the end of the field "CRC Field" there should be no more than 5 following one after another bits with identical polarity.
After each sequence from 5 identical bits the block transmitter adds in a stream of bits of one bit with opposite polarity.
Blocks receivers delete these bits after message reception on the tire of data of CAN.
Elimination of mistakes
If any module of the tire of data of CAN distinguishes a mistake, it interrupts the current process of data transmission, sending an error message. The error message consists of 6 prepotent bits.
Thanks to an error message all connected to the tire of data CAN control units are notified on the arisen local mistake and respectively ignore the message transferred before.
After a short pause all control units again can transfer messages on the tire of data of CAN, and the message with the highest priority will be again sent the first.
The control unit, чьё the message on the tire of data of CAN caused mistake emergence, also there begins repeated transfer of the message (Automatic Repeat Request function).
Types of tires CAN
Various tires CAN are applied to different areas of management. They differ from each other in the speed of data transmission.
Speed of transfer on the tire of data of CAN area «the engine and a running gear» (CAN-C) makes 125 Kbps, and the tire of these CAN "Salon" (CAN-B) owing to smaller number of especially urgent messages is calculated on speed of data transmission only 83 Kbps.
Data exchange between two tire systems is carried out through so-called «gateway locks», i.e. the control units connected to both tires of data.
The fiber-optical tire D2B (Digital Daten-Bus) of data is applied to the Audio/communication/navigation area. Essentially bigger volume of information, than the tire with a copper cable can transfer a fiber-optical cable.