Audi A4, S4
+ Governing bodies and receptions of safe operation
+ Current leaving and service
+ Systems of cooling, heating and air conditioner
+ Power supply systems, release and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases
- Systems of electric equipment of the engine
- Ignition and engine management system
Main data and security measures
Checks of a control system by ignition and injection
Search of malfunctions - the general information and preliminary checks
Check and adjustment of a corner of an advancing of ignition
+ System of preheat of the diesel engine
+ Diagnostics of systems of electronic control and diagnostic equipment
+ charging and start Systems
+ Manual box of gear shifting
+ Automatic transmission
+ Coupling, power shafts and differential
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Onboard electric equipment
The spark plug consists of the central electrode, an insulator with the case and an electrode (ов) masses. Between the central electrode and an electrode of weight the spark igniting fuel - an air mix slips. It is not necessary to apply spark plugs, distinct from the recommended. The recommended type of candles is defined among other things by kalilny number.
Kalilnoye number characterizes degree of thermal loading of a candle. The kalilny number of a candle is lower, the degree of its thermal loading is higher. Thus the candle takes away heat thanks to what possibility of kalilny ignition of a fuel mix is excluded better. The candle with the high thermal characteristic has that shortcoming that its temperature of self-cleaning lies above. It is more inclined to formation of a deposit, in particular when the engine in operating time often does not reach the working temperature, for example movement in the city, short trips in the winter.
The correct kalilny number of a candle is defined by the manufacturer of the car. There are candles with one or several electrodes of weight, with various length of a carving and its diameter. At replacement of a candle it is necessary to establish only the candles corresponding to requirements of the manufacturer of the car.
Average service life of a candle is various. Thus the serious role is played also by a material of electrodes. Chrome - a nickel alloy is characterized by very high heat conductivity and high corrosion firmness. The best heat conductivity silver possesses, and platinum electrodes possess high corrosion firmness and firmness against an obgoraniye. Service life of candles of 100000 km of run.
Depending on a design of engines distinguish two types of consolidation between spark plugs and a head of cylinders.
Flat consolidation has an external sealing ring which is not lost and is fixed on the candle case. At konusny consolidation it is not required additional sealing elements. At limited space for installation, candles with a flat landing surface and the small turnkey size are in most cases applied. Candles with a conic landing surface thanks to a compact design have the smaller sizes.
Spark plugs it is necessary to change each 60 000 km of run, address to Head the Current leaving and service.
On appearance of a candle it is possible to draw a conclusion on work of candles, quality management of a mix and an engine condition (pistons, piston rings etc.).
At a vvinchivaniye of candles watch, that they were not drawn, as the sealing washer can be damaged. Do not exceed the moment of a tightening specified in Specifications.
Symptoms: Availability of soot indicates reenrichment of a fuel and air mix or weak intensity of a spark. Causes ignition admissions, complicates start and results in instability of operation of the engine.
Recommendations: Whether check the air purifier is hammered, whether fuel level in the poplavkovy chamber is not too high, whether the air zaslonka is jammed and whether contacts are not too worn-out. Try to use candles with longer insulator that increases resilience to pollution.
Symptoms: Zamaslivaniye of a candle is called by wear of maslootrazhatelny caps. Oil gets to the combustion chamber through worn-out directing valves or piston rings. Causes ignition admissions, complicates start and results in instability of operation of the engine.
Recommendations: Perform mechanical recovery works and replace candles.
Symptoms: Porous, white insulator, erosion of electrodes and absence of any deposits. Leads to reduction of service life of a candle.
Recommendations: Whether check there corresponds to requirements of Specifications kalilny number of the established candles, whether the corner of an advancing of ignition is correctly exposed, whether too poor fuel and air mix moves, whether there are no leakages of vacuum of the inlet pipeline and whether valves are jammed. Check as level of a cooler and whether the radiator is corked.
Too early ignition
Symptoms: Electrodes are melted off. The insulator has white color, but can be and is polluted owing to ignition or hit admissions in chambers of combustion of extraneous particles. Can lead to an engine exit out of operation.
Recommendations: Check kalilny number of the established candles, a corner of an advancing of ignition, quality of a mix (whether it is not too grown poor), whether the system of cooling is corked and whether the greasing system normally functions.
Symptoms: The insulator has yellowish color and the polished appearance. Speaks about sudden temperature increase in combustion chambers at sharp acceleration. Usual deposits are thus melted off, taking a form of a varnish covering. Leads to ignition admissions at high speeds of movement.
Recommendations: Replace candles (colder, at preservation of a manner of driving).
Short circuit of electrodes
Symptoms: A waste of products of combustion gets to interelectrode space. Firm deposits accumulate, forming a crossing point between electrodes. Leads to ignition refusal in the cylinder.
Recommendations: Remove deposits from interelectrode space.
Normal state of a candle
Symptoms: Gray-brown color and easy wear of electrodes. Kalilnoye number of candles corresponds to type of the engine and its general condition.
Recommendations: At replacement of candles establish candles of the same type.
Symptoms: Soft brownish color of adjournment on one or both electrodes of a candle. A source of their education are applied additives to oil and/or fuel. Excessive accumulation can lead to isolation of electrodes and cause admissions of ignition and unstable operation of the engine at acceleration.
Recommendations: At fast accumulation of deposits change maslootrazhatelny caps that will prevent oil hit in combustion chambers. Try to replace fuel brand.
Symptoms: A rounding off of electrodes with a small congestion of deposits on the working end. Color normal. Leads to difficulty of start of the engine in cold damp weather and to fuel consumption increase.
Recommendations: Change candles on new, the same type.
Symptoms: Insulators can appear chopped off or burst. Also inaccurate equipment of adjustment of a candle gap can lead to damage of an insulator. Can lead to damage of pistons.
Symptoms: After ignition admissions during a long period of adjournment can be loosened at preservation of working temperature in the combustion chamber. At high speeds of adjournment in flakes come off the piston and stick to a hot insulator, causing ignition admissions.
Recommendations: Replace candles or smooth out and establish into place the old.
Symptoms: Can be caused by hit of extraneous materials in the chamber of combustion or arise at piston blow about too long candle. Lead to refusal of functioning of the cylinder and to piston damage.
Recommendations: Remove from the engine extraneous particles and/or replace